Errata as of 21 March 1998

Original from 10 October 1997

p.85 In Table 5-1, under "honey," "25 cup" should be "2/5 cup."

p.108 "plenty or headspace" should be "plenty of headspace"

p.113 "Tadcaster Brewery" should be "The Old Brewery - Tadcaster."

p.130 The formulas for converting between SRM and EBC are based on the old (pre-1987) method for measuring EBC degrees. Since about 1987, EBC = 1.97 SRM.

p.157 "Tadcaster Brewery" should be "The Old Brewery - Tadcaster."

p.182 "Tadcaster Brewery" should be "The Old Brewery - Tadcaster."

p.163 I said that Burton Water Salts are a blend of gypsum, magnesium sulfate and table salt, but I've since found out that at least one distributor's (L. D. Carlson) is simply gypsum and papain (a proteolytic enzyme, which, incidentally would be denatured [made inactive] if added in the boil as I suggest – I disapprove of the use of papain so I recommend that you continue to add the BWS in the boil if you choose to use it).

p.184 The last sentence should read: "While the synthesis of fatty acids and sterols cannot occur in the absence of oxygen, yeast are capable of utilizing unsaturated fatty acids found in cold break, thereby reducing the yeasts' oxygen requirements."

p.432 Under Oktoberfest/Märzen, "1810" should be "1840." (Oktoberfest itself began in 1810, but the beer was not introduced by Sedlmayr till the 1840's.)

pp.461-464 The table headings should be "Alpha Acid %," "Beta Acid %," and "Cohumulone % of Alpha Acid."

Since sending the book to the printer, I have developed a spreadsheet that calculates potential FG and ABV, and after plugging in all the OGs and AAs for each style, I found that there were a number of that I had initially calculated wrongly:

p.427 Under Pre-prohibition American Lager, the ABV should be 4.7 to 5.8%

p.430 Under Eisbock, the ABV should be 7 to 13+%.

p.428 Under Robust American Lager, the ABV should be 4.6 to 5.5%.

p.422 Under Tripel, the ABV should be 6.4 to 10%.

p.422 Under Dubbel, the ABV should be 3.9 to 8.5%.

p.423 Under Berliner Weiss, the ABV should be 2.8 to 3.6%.

p.436 Under Münster Altbier, the Apparent Attenuation should be 72 to 82%.

New for 7 November 1997:

p.vii That should be "White Horse on Parson's Green."

p.418 Under Scottish Ale, add: "The character of Scottish Ales has been slowly drifting towards that of English Bitters. I believe that 25 to 50 years ago, Scottish Ales were less attenuated, had less bitterness and were probably not dryhopped. The guidelines here are wide enough to include both modern and more traditional interpretations.

p.438 Under Blonde Ale/Lager, the ABV should be 4.0 to 6.0%.

New for 8 November 1997:

p.vii Mark Hibberd should be added to the acknowledgments.

p.119 Under Priming More Precisely add: "Mark Hibberd and Dave Draper were the first to quantitatively account for the CO2 that remains dissolved in the beer from fermentation and adjust the amount of priming sugar accordingly. Initially, their work was published in the Homebrew Digest and then later in Brewing Techniques, however, when I recalculated the data from scratch for use in tabular form (table 6-5), my data did not correlate exactly to the graph in the Brewing Techniques article, regardless of how many times I checked my math."

p.210 Under Coriander, I suggested pre-ground, grocery store variety coriander. Upon further evaluation, I've found that this type of coriander can lend a "meaty" flavor to the beer. Avoid pre-ground coriander! Buy whole coriander and grind it yourself just prior to use. Also, if you grow it yourself (coriander are the seeds of the cilantro plant), let it age in whole form for at least a few months or it will lend a rubbery aroma/flavor to your beer.

p.294 Under Meaty Aroma, I now believe that pre-ground, grocery store variety coriander lends a meaty aroma, not excessive coriander. The solution is to grind your own.

p.331 Under Dry Stout, column four, "alternative" should be "attenuative."

New for 21 March 1998:

p.vii Paulius Alekna, Sean Mick, Sam Mize and Mike Spinelli should be added to the acknowledgments.

p.5 In a personal correspondence, Sam Mize pointed out (among other things) that some beginner equipment kits may come with a glass carboy rather than a plastic pail. If this is indeed the case, it is important that you cool the initial 4 gallons of water before you add them to the carboy or it may crack. See “Fermenters” and “Blowoff hoses” on pp. 50-51 for more details on the use of glass carboys.

p.19 In the second paragraph, add a “)” after “onto a bottle.”

p.34 In the first paragraph, that should be “will stick to the hydrometer…”

p.36 The prices for the pH papers are per 100 strips or per roll.

p.38 Under Computer, it may not be clear that “one of the three” refers to the three available tables of utilization values.

p.40 In the second paragraph, that should be “The Corona grain mill is designed to…”

p.45 In the fourth paragraph, there should be a “(“ before “unless.”

p.46 I failed to mention that I am the originator of the SureScreen™ (actually, I thought it was a bit self-serving to point that out, but I’ve been told otherwise). It is available at many homebrew shops or via my website.

p.52 Near the top, “four ago” should be “four years ago.”

p.133 I have heard from brewers who say that they encountered a starch haze with Hugh Baird Carastan 30-39 crystal malt. This suggests that this may be another crystal malt that requires mashing.

p.151 Rather than saying “in the last five years,” I should have said “in the 1990’s.”

p.163 Technically, ppm and mg/l are not exactly equivalent because 1 liter weighs only 997 grams at 25 C, but they are essentially equivalent for our purposes.

p.175 I received two more water analyses from Vienna. The ranges of the ions should be: Ca 120-200, Mg 60-68, Na 8, CO3 163-200, SO4 124-216 and Cl 12-39.

p.179 Steve Alexander posted to the Homebrew Digest that the commonly believed action of autolysis (that yeast cells exude enzymes that break down their neighbors) is incorrect and the enzymatic activity actually occurs from within the cells. He referenced The Yeasts (Academic Press) and page 539 of Malting and Brewing Science.

p.282 Under Butterscotch aroma, the fourth Cause, add: “While they do not produce diacetyl directly, some enteric bacteria appear to influence yeast to produce more of the precursors of diacetyl108.” Also, throughout this section, yeast does not actually produce diacetyl directly either – they produce a-acetolactic acid which is then later oxidized to diacetyl113.”

p.286 Under Clovey aroma, the first Solution, "more fruity than clovey than fruity" should be "more fruity than clovey."

p.286 Under Clovey aroma, for the first two Causes, I appear to suggest contradictory Solutions. The reason that it is correct as written, is because while both clovey and fruity character are reduced by cooler fermentations, the fruity character is reduced more. In other words, a cooler fermentation will reduce fruitiness more than it will reduce cloveyness.

p.286 Under Clovey aroma, the third Cause, add “Some enteric bacteria produce phenolic compounds which can lend medicinal or clovey aromas and flavors108.”

p.293 I failed to point out that the misnamed “lactic aroma” I’m referring to is that of “spoiled milk.”

p.299 Under Sherry aroma, first Solution, "oxygenation" should be "oxidation."

p.308 Under Clovey flavor the second solution, “head-sealed” should be “heat-sealed.”

p.332 Under Dubbel, “light crystal” should be “light extract.”

p.357 Table 15-11 should be “Finishing hops,” not “Fishing hops." (I’d like to take a moment to point out that all the typographical errors in the tables of this book are due to the incompetent typesetter I hired to create the films).

p.374 In the answer to the FAQ about adding acids, I say that adding lactic acid will cause calcium lactate to be formed and that calcium will be lost in the reaction. This is technically true, but you would have to add an awful lot of lactic acid to cause calcium lactate to precipitate. It would be more correct to say that adding phosphoric acid will cause calcium loss because calcium phosphate is far less soluble than calcium lactate. What this means to us brewers is that, given the choice, I recommend you use lactic acid over phosphoric, because the former will cause less calcium precipitation.

p.375 Under Boiling, add “I forgot to add the Irish Moss in the boil. Can I add it in the fermenter?” The answer to this question is: no. Irish Moss helps coagulate proteins only in the boil. See “Clarity and Finings” on page 99 if you have a problem with haze.

p.466 Fuggle should be added to “earthy.” Appx E White Labs yeasts became nationally available only after the book went to print, so the following information was omitted from Appendix E (my comments are in square brackets):

  • WLP001- California Ale Yeast: “Our best selling strain. This yeast is famous for its clean flavors, balance and ability to be used in almost any style ale. Attenuation is 73-80% Flocculation is Medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 68-73 degrees.” [recommended for emulating Sierra Nevada and Anchor ales]

  • WLP002- English Ale Yeast: A classic ESB strain from one of England's largest [independent] breweries. This yeast is best suited for English style ales including Milds, Bitters, Porters, and English style Stouts. Attenuation is 63-70% which leaves behind some residual sweetness not found in our California Ale Yeast. Flocculation is Very High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 65- 68 degrees. [this yeast would be my first choice for making ales similar to those from Fuller’s or Young’s]

  • WLP004- Irish Ale Yeast: This is the yeast from one of the oldest stout producing breweries in the world. It produces a slight hint of diacetyl, balanced by a light fruitiness. Great for Irish ales, Stouts, Porters, Browns, Reds and a very interesting Pale Ale. Attenuation is 69-74%. Flocculation is Medium to High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 65-68 degrees. [recommended for emulating Guinness or Murphy’s]

  • WLP005- British Ale Yeast: Used by several of our breweries, this yeast is a little more attenuative than WLP002. Like most English strains, this yeast produces malty beers. Excellent for all English style ales including bitter, pale ale, porter, and brown ale. Attenuation is 67-74%. Flocculation is High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 65-70 degrees. [this may be the Ringwood yeast; it does produce elevated diacetyl levels when under 5ppm of oxygen is provided at pitching time; rather than “most” above, I would prefer to say “the majority of”]

  • WLP008- East Coast Ale Yeast: Our "Brewer Patriot" strain can be used to reproduce many of the American versions of classic beer styles. Similar neutral character of WLP001, but less attenuation, less accentuation of hop bitterness, increased flocculation, and a little tartness. Very clean and low esters. Great yeast for golden, blonde, honey, and German alt style ales. Attenuation is 70-75%. Flocculation is Medium to High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 68-73 degrees. [I question the usefulness of this yeast for Altbier; it would be a good choice for Samuel Adams’ or Baltimore Brewing Company’s ales]

  • WLP023- Burton Ale Yeast: From the famous brewing town of Burton upon Trent, England, this yeast is packed with character. It provides delicious subtle fruity flavors like green apple, clover honey and pear. Great for all English styles, IPA's Bitters, Pales. Excellent in Porters and Stouts. Attenuation is 69-75%. Flocculation is Medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 68-73 degrees. [a good choice for emulating Marston’s or Burton Bridge ales]

  • WLP028- Edinburgh Ale Yeast: Scotland is famous for its malty, strong ales. This yeast can reproduce these complex, flavorful Scottish style ales. Attenuation is 70-75% . Flocculation is medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 65-70 degrees. [my first choice for Caledonian or McEwan’s clones]

  • WLP029- German Ale/Kölsch Yeast: From a small brewpub in Cologne, Germany, this yeast works great in Kölsch and Alt style beers. Slight sulfur produced during fermentation will disappear with age and leave a super clean, lager-like ale. Attenuation is 72-78% Flocculation is medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 65-69 degrees. [a good choice for emulating PJ Früh or Mühlen Kölsches]

  • WLP300- Hefeweizen Ale Yeast: This infamous German yeast is a strain used in the production of traditional, authentic wheat beers. It produces the banana and clove nose traditionally associated with German wheat beers. Attenuation is 72-76% Flocculation is low which leaves the desired cloudy look of traditional German wheat beers. Optimum fermentation temperature is 68-72 degrees. [most German Hefeweizens are filtered, then bottled with lager yeast which is intentionally stirred up during the pour – these beers are not cloudy because of unflocculent yeast]

  • WLP320- American Hefeweizen Ale Yeast: This yeast is used to produce Oregon style Hefeweizen, which is characterized by yeast in suspension but clean flavors. Unlike WLP030, this yeast does not produce the banana and clove notes. It produces some sulfur, but is otherwise a clean fermenting yeast which does not Flocculate well, producing a cloudy beer. Attenuation is 70-75% Flocculation is Low. Optimum fermentation is 65-69 degrees.

  • WLP400- Belgian Wit Ale Yeast: Slightly phenolic and tart, this is the yeast used to produce Wit in Belgium. Attenuation is 74-78% Flocculation is Low to Medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 67-74 degrees. [a good choice for emulating Hoegaarden ales or possibly even Celis White]

  • WLP500- Trappist Ale Yeast: From one of the six Trappist breweries remaining in the world, this yeast produces the distinctive fruitiness and plum characteristics. Excellent yeast for high gravity beers, Belgian ales, Dubbels and Tripels. Attenuation is 73-78% Flocculation is Medium. Fermentation should be held below 65 degrees for best results. [recommended for emulating Chimay or Rochefort ales]

  • WLP715- Champagne Yeast: Classic yeast, use to produce Champagne, Cider, Dry Meads, Dry Wines, or to fully attenuate barley wines/strong ales. Can tolerate alcohol concentrations up to 17%. Flocculation is Low

  • WLP720- Sweet Mead/Wine Yeast: A wine yeast strain that is less attenuative then WLP715, leaving some residual sweetness. Slightly fruity, and will tolerate alcohol concentration up to 15%. Flocculation is Low.

  • WLP800- Pilsner Lager Yeast: Classic Pilsner strain from the premier Pilsner producer in the Czech Republic. Somewhat dry with a malty finish, this yeast is best suited for European Pilsner production. Attenuation is 72-77% Flocculation is Medium to High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 50-55 degrees. [a good choice for making something similar to Pilsner Urquell or Budweiser Budvar]

  • WLP810- San Francisco Lager Yeast: This yeast used is used to produce the "California Common" style beer. A unique lager strain which has the ability to ferment up to 65 degrees while retaining lager characteristics. Attenuation is 65-70% Flocculation is High. Optimum fermentation temperature is 58-65 degrees. Can also be fermented down to 50 degrees for production of Märzens, Pilsners and other style lagers.

  • WLP830- German Lager Yeast: This yeast is one of the most widely used lager yeasts in the world. Very malty and clean, great for all German lagers, including Pilsner and Oktoberfest/Märzen. Attenuation is 74-79%. Flocculation is Medium. Optimum fermentation temperature is 50-55 degrees. [this is the Wissenschaftliche 34/70 yeast]
  • Appx E Two new yeasts were introduced by YeastLab since the book went to print:

  • YeastLab A09 - [a very vigorous, top-cropping yeast (it forms the classic “pancake” of yeast that floats on top of the beer during the ferment); strong diacetyl producer; has high oxygen requirements; it is such a strong flocculator, you need to resuspend it to get reasonable attenuation; a good choice for emulating Shipyard, Grizzly Peak or Traverse ales]

  • YeastLab A10 Brewpub - [a relatively slow fermenter; a bottom- cropping ale strain (the yeast sinks to the bottom of the fermenter as fermentation subsides); has high oxygen requirements; tends to make more diacetyl than most yeasts; rumor has it that this is the NCYC 1187 strain]